Wind energy ia the kinetic energy associated with the movement of large masses of air. These motions result from the uneven heating of the atmosphere by sun,creating temperature density and pressure difference. It is estimated that 1 percent of all solar radiation falling on the earth is converted into kinetic energy of the atmosphere.
The idea of harnessing winds is not new or in other words we can say that conversion of wind energy into kinetic energy is not new.It was one of the first natural energy sources to be used by mankind.There are indicators that windmill were used in baylon and china around 1700-2000BC to pump water and grind grains.
It were Egyptians who used wind energy to sail their ships in nile river some 5000 years ago.In persia ans afghanistan wind mills were used around 7th century AD for grinding grains.
The interest in wind energy has renewed after oil crisis of 1973.Most modern and large scale wind energy systems have been built after 1980 using modern engineering design,materials and incorporating micro electrons monitoring and control.
Wind power installed capacity of top ten countries (2007 end).
S no. Country installed cap %age
1. Germany 22,247 23.6
2. U.S.A 16,818 17.9
3. SPAIN 15,145 16.1
4 INDIA 8,000 8.5
5. CHINA 6,050 6.4
6. DENMARK 3,125 3.3
7. ITALY 2,726 2.9
8. FRANCE 2454 2.6
9. UK 2389 2.5
10 PORTUGAL 2150 2.3
REST OF THE WORLD 13,123 13.8
TOTAL 94,123 100
Major that have led to the development of wind power:
1. Availability of high stergth of fibre composites for contstruction of large low cost rotar blades.
2. Falling prices of power electronics.
3. Improved plant operation.
4. Economy of scale.
5. Short energy psyback period of about one year.
Factors affecting the distribution of wind energy on the surface of the earth.
Several factors are responsible for distribution of wind energy on surface of the earth:
1. On planetry level great Mountain masses influences the circulation of air currents.
2. Surface roughness or friction.
3. Climate disturbances.
4. Wind speed also increases while passing through narrow mountain gaps.
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